Vol. 13 No. 5 (2022):
Global Perspectives

Placing Indian Village System in the Centre of Development-Induced Displacement Discourse

Anand Prasad Mishra
Banaras Hindu University, India

Published 2022-11-18

Keywords

  • Indian village system,
  • rural society,
  • development-induced,
  • displacement,
  • spatial dynamics

How to Cite

Mishra, A. P. ., Mondal, S., & Jha, P. C. . (2022). Placing Indian Village System in the Centre of Development-Induced Displacement Discourse. European Journal of Geography, 13(5), 27–44. https://doi.org/10.48088/ejg.a.mis.270

Abstract

The contemporary development process under the impact of neo-liberal policies has rapidly changed and restructured the socio-economic sphere of village life in India. The evolving pattern of rural society has turned its socio-economic structure into a complex space full of contradictions. As a result, the geographical space has been altered in terms of the representation of maps, information, and ideological interests. These spatial patterns have added to the complexities of space that have attracted scholars who relate it to new theories in developmental economics. The present paper attempts to analyse some of these aspects of the Indian rural society undergoing the process of development and displacement and its impact on different socio-economic groups, i.e., peasants, small and marginal farmers, share-croppers, artisans, agricultural labourers, and landless labourers. One-sided development, especially in the agrarian economy, disturbs the traditional skill, livelihood, and social order ultimately spreading the issues of unsustainable livelihood, hardship, and marginalization in peri-urban areas. Reskilling and participation in the decision-making process of the displaced people of developing society have become a challenging issue for policy orientation related to Development Induced Displacement (DID).

References

  1. Aboda, C., Mugagga, F., Byakagaba, P. & Nabanoga, G. (2019). Development induced displacement: A review of risks faced by communities in developing countries, Sociology and Anthropology, 7(2), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2019.070205
  2. Alvares, C. A. (1992). Science development and violence: The revolt against modernity. Oxford University Press: Delhi.
  3. Baden-Powell, B. H. (1957). Indian village community, Longman, Green and Company, reprinted, New Haven, HRAF Press, 127-128.
  4. Barnett, R. J. & Cavanagh, J. (1994). Global dreams: Imperial corporations and the new world order, New York: Simon Schuster.
  5. Bennett, O. & McDowell, C. (2012). Displaced: The human cost of development and resettlement, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781137074232
  6. Besley, T. (1995). Property rights and investment incentives: Theory and evidence from Ghana, Journal of Political Economy, 103 (5), 903-937. https://doi.org/10.1086/262008
  7. Bhaduri, A. (2007). Scrap SEZ, Liberation, New Delhi, 14-20.
  8. Bottazzi, P. (2019). Work and social-ecological transitions: A critical review of five contrasting approaches. Sustainability, 11(14), 3852. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143852
  9. Caspary, G. (2007). The impacts of development-induced displacement on human security. Human Security Journal, 4, 70-81. https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2019.070205
  10. Cernea, M. (2000a). Impoverishment or social justice? A model for planning resettlement. In H. M. Mathur & D. Marsden (Eds.), Development projects and impoverishment risks: Resettling project- affected people in India, Oxford University Press.
  11. Cernea, M. (2000b). Risks, safeguards and reconstruction: A model for population displacement and resettlement. In M. Cernea & C. McDowell (Eds.), Risks and reconstruction: Experiences of resettlers and refugees, Washington, DC: World Bank.
  12. Cerny, P. G. (1997). Paradoxes of the competition state: The dynamics of political globalisation, Government and Opposition, 32 (2), 251-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1997.tb00161.x
  13. Carney, T. (2021). China’s Three Gorges Dam: Development, displacement, and degradation. Nebraska Anthropologist, 29, 20-27.
  14. Creţan, R., & Vesalon, L. (2017). The political economy of hydropower in the communist space: Iron Gates revisited. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 108(5), 688–701. https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12247
  15. Dalby, S. (2008). Geographies of global environmental security. In G. Youngs & E. Kofman (Eds.), Globalization: Theory and practices, London and New York: Continuum, 29-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781501397790.ch-003
  16. De Wet, C. J. (2009). Does development displace ethics? The challenge of forced resettlement. In A. Oliver-Smith (Ed.), Development and dispossession: The crisis of forced displacement and resettlement, 77–96, Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press.
  17. Downing, T. E., & Garcia-Downing, C. (2009). Routine and dissonant cultures: A theory about the psycho-socio-cultural disruptions of involuntary displacement and ways to mitigate them without inflicting even more damage. In A. Oliver-Smith (Ed.) Development and dispossession: The crisis of forced displacement and resettlement, 225-320, Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research Press.
  18. Fernanades, W., Chhetri, S., Lama, S., & Joseph, S. (2012). Progress: At whose cost? Development-induced displacement in West Bengal 1947–2000. (NESRC Displacement Studies Series No. 2), Guwahati: North Eastern Social Research Centre.
  19. Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of modernity, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  20. Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of post modernity. Oxford: Basil Black well, 61.
  21. Held, D. (1991). Democracy, the nation state and the global system. Economy and Society, 20(2), 138-172, https://doi.org/10.1080/03085149100000007
  22. Jacoby, H. G., Li, G. & Rozelle, S. (2002). Hazards of expropriation: Tenure insecurity and investment in rural china, American Economic Review, 92 (5), 1420-1447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282802762024575
  23. Jackson, S. & Sleigh, A. (2000). Resettlement for China's Three Gorges Dam: Socio-economic impact and institutional tensions, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 33(2), 223-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X(00)00005-2
  24. Jorgenson, D. W. (1961). The Development of a dual economy, The Economic Journal, 71(282), 309–334, https://doi.org/10.2307/2228770
  25. Krishnan, R. (2006). Development for corporate: Death and devastation for the millions, Liberation, New Delhi, 14-16.
  26. Kujur, J. (2022). The effect of development-induced displacement on Adivasis: Evidence from the Rourkela steel plant project in India. Journal of South Asian Development, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1177/09731741221129352
  27. Latouche, S. (1993). In the wake of the affluent society: An exploration post-development, London: Zed Books.
  28. Leopoldo J. B. et al. (2000). Displacement, resettlement, rehabilitation, reparation and development, WCD Thematic Review 1.3 (Cape Town, South Africa: World Commission on Dams Secretariat).
  29. Lewis, W. A. (1954). Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour, The Manchester School, 22, 139-91, https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1467-9957.1954.TB00021.X
  30. Lok Sabha Secretariat (2013). Displacement and rehabilitation of people due to developmental projects. Reference note No. 30/RN/Ref./December/2013, retrieved on March 17, 2022 from http://164.100.47.193/Refinput/New_Reference_Notes/English/DisplacementandRehabilitation.pdf
  31. Mahapatra, L. K. (1999). Testing the risks and reconstruction model on India’s resettlement experiences. In Michael Cernea (Ed.), The Economics of Involuntary Resettlement: Questions and Challenges, Washington, DC: World Bank.
  32. Marx, K. (1853). Marx on caste and the village community, retrieved on December 10, 2010 from http://www.anti-caste.org/marx-on-caste-and-the village community.htm
  33. Mathur, H. M. (2008). Introduction and overview. In H. M. Mathur (Ed.), India social development report 2008: Development and displacement, 3–13. New Delhi: Council for Social Development and Oxford University Press.
  34. Menon-Sen, K & Bhan, G. (2008). Swept off the map: Surviving eviction and resettlement in Delhi, New Delhi: Yoda Press.
  35. Ministry of Rural Development. (2007). The national rehabilitation and resettlement policy, 2007. Retrieved on September 9, 2015 from http://www.dolr.nic.in/NRRP2007.pdf
  36. Maldonado, J. (2012). A new path forward: Researching and reflecting on forced displacement and resettlement: Report on the International Resettlement Conference: Economics, Social Justice, and Ethics in Development-Caused Involuntary Migration, The Hague, 4-8 October 2010. Journal of Refugee Studies, 25, 193-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fer036
  37. Medzini, A. & Lev Ari, L. (2018). Can borders, walls and fences deter forced migrants? Comparison of future policy trajectories and implications in Europe and Israel. European Journal of Geography, 9(2). https://eurogeojournal.eu/index.php/egj/article/view/127
  38. Mormont, M. (1990). Who is rural? Or, how to be rural: Towards sociology of the rural. In T. Marsden, P. Lowe & S. Whatmore (Eds.) Rural restructuring: Global Processes and their responses, 21-44, London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.
  39. Nanda, D. (2021). Development-induced displacement (DID) - A historical experiment at Kalinga Nagar in Odisha. Odisha Review, 31-37. Retrieved from http://magazines.odisha.gov.in/Orissareview/2021/May/engpdf/Page-31-37.pdf (Accessed on 15th November, 2022)
  40. Neef, A. & Singer, J. (2015). Development-induced displacement in Asia: Conflicts, risks, and resilience, Development in Practice, 25(5), 601-611 https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2015.1052374
  41. Negi, N. S. & Ganguly, S. (2011). Development projects vs. internally displaced populations in India: A literature based appraisal. (COMCAD Working Paper No. 103), Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development, University of Bielefeld. https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-422011
  42. Norgaard, R.B. (1988). Sustainable development: A co-evolutionary View. Futures, 20(6), 606-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(88)90003-1
  43. Parasuraman, S. (1999). The development dilemma: Displacement in India. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  44. Patel, S., Sliuzas, R. & Mathur, N. (2015). The risk of impoverishment in urban development-induced displacement and resettlement in Ahmedabad, Environment & Urbanization, 27(1): 231–256. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0956247815569128
  45. Ramos, V. (1982). The concepts of ideology, hegemony, and organic intellectuals in Gramsci’s marxism. Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ncm-7/tr-gramsci.htm (Accessed on 16th October 2022)
  46. Robinson, W. C. (2003). Risk and right: The causes, consequences and challenges of development, industrial Displacement. The Brookings Institution-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement, Washington DC, retrieved on December 10, 2010 from http://www.brookings.edu/fp/projects/idp/articles/didreport.pdf
  47. Sampat, P. (2008). Special economic zones in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 43(28), 25–29.
  48. Sarkar, A. (2007). Development and displacement: Land acquisition in West Bengal. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(16), 1435-1442. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4419496
  49. Scholte, J. A. (2000). Globalisation: A critical introduction, London: Palgrave. 138-143.
  50. Saha, T. R. (2006). Legitimising SEZ: The mask of amendment. In (Eds) Corporate land grab: Issues of development and democracy, CPI (ML) Publication.
  51. Sharma, R. N., & Singh, S. R. (2009), Displacement in Singrauli region: Entitlements and rehabilitation. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(51), 62–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25663915
  52. Singh, S. N. & Singh, S. K. (2013). Geographical perspectives on urbanization, development and displacement - A case study of the upcoming hi-tech city in Varanasi, India. Indian Journal of Spatial Science, 4(2), 52 – 62.
  53. Soni, A. (2009). Urban conquest of outer Delhi beneficiaries, intermediaries and victims. The case of Mehrauli countryside, in Sujata Patel and Kaushal Deb (eds.), Urban Studies, Oxford India Paperbacks, New Delhi.
  54. Swyngedouw, E. (2007). Techno natural revolutions: The scalar politics of Franco’s hydro social dream for Spain 1939–1975. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32, pp. 9–28. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00233.x
  55. Terminski, B. (2013). Development-induced displacement and resettlement: Theoretical frameworks and current challenges. Indiana University Press. https://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/handle/10535/8833
  56. Vanclay, F. (2006). Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 26(1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2005.05.002
  57. Vanclay, F. (2015). Changes in the impact assessment family 2003-2014: Implications for considering achievements, gaps and future directions. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, 17(1) https://doi.org/10.1142/S1464333215500039
  58. Vanclay, F. & Philippe, H. (2019). Conceptualizing company response to community protest: Principles to achieve a social license to operate. Land, 8(6), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.3390/land8060101
  59. Vanclay, F. (2020). Reflections on social impact assessment in the 21st century. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 38(2), 126-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2019.1685807
  60. Varan, C. & Creţan, R. (2017). Place and the spatial politics of Intergenerational remembrance of the Iron Gates displacements in Romania, 1966-1972. Area, 50(4), 509-519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/area.12387
  61. Vesalon, L. & Cretan, R. (2012). Development-induced displacement in Romania: The case of Roşia Montană mining project. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis, 4(1), 63-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.37043/jura.2012.4.1.4
  62. Woods, M. (2003). Deconstructing rural protest: The emergence of new social movement. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(3), 309-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00008-1
  63. World Bank. (1994). Resettlement and development: The bank-wide review of projects involving involuntary resettlement 1986–1993. Environment Department. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  64. Zhang, S., Mackee, J., Sing, M. & Tang, L. M. (2022). Mapping the knowledge domain of affected local community participation research in megaproject-induced displacement. Sustainability, 14, 14745. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214745