Vol. 14 No. 3 (2023): (Issue in progress)
Research Article

Autonomous technologies for daily personal mobilities

Aharon Kellerman
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel

Published 2023-08-18


  • autonomy,
  • personal mobilities,
  • mobile Internet,
  • electric vehicles (EVs),
  • autonomous vehicles (AVs),
  • artificial intelligence (AI)
  • ...More

How to Cite

Kellerman, Aharon. 2023. “Autonomous Technologies for Daily Personal Mobilities”. European Journal of Geography 14 (3):89-96. https://doi.org/10.48088/ejg.a.kel.
Received 2023-06-26
Accepted 2023-08-18
Published 2023-08-18


This article attempts to point to emerging future trends for personal mobilities, focusing on the current and upcoming uses of autonomous technologies for both physical and virtual mobilities. These uses will be based on electricity and the Internet, which also constitute mobility modes. The article presents first each of the four emerging mobility technologies: electric vehicles (EVs), mobile Internet, autonomous vehicles (AVs), and artificial intelligence (AI) via chatbots. This is followed by a discussion of habit changes in the adoption of the four new mobility technologies. The article then moves to discussions of individual, societal, and spatial implications of the two mobility autonomous technologies of AV and AI. For individuals, autonomous physical and virtual mobilities will both be typified by rather restricted roles and activities by users, such as passengers and text users respectively. At the social level autonomous mobility will have a major impact on education, both generally, requiring students to analyze texts rather than to author them, and professionally, with growing needs for computer experts rather than traditional garage workers. It is too early to assess some possible spatial impacts of chatbots, but AVs will imply several spatial implications, notably regarding the structure of urban streets and parking facilities.


  • The emergence of autonomous technologies for personal mobilities.
  • Current and future adoption patterns for autonomous mobility technologies.
  • Individual, societal, and spatial implications for autonomous mobility technologies.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Agar, J. (2003). Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone. Icon Books.
  2. Ashton, K. (2009). The 'Internet of Things' thing, RFID Journal. http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?4986
  3. Augoyard, J-F. & Torgue, H. (2005). Sonic Experience. McCartney, A. & Paquette, D. (trans.) McGill-Queens University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9780773576919
  4. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507
  5. Carden, L. & Wood, W. (2018). Habit formation and change. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 20, 117-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.009
  6. Chat GPT. (2022). https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/
  7. CleanTechnica. (2023). https://cleantechnica.com/2023/05/31/35-plugin-vehicle-market-share-in-china-china-ev-sales-report/
  8. Cugurullo, F., Acheampong, R.A., Gueriau, M. & Dusparic, I. (2021). The transition to automatic cars, the redesign of cities and the future of urban sustainability. Urban Geography, 42, 833-859. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2020.1746096
  9. Dannemiller, K.A., Mondal, A. & Asmussen, K.E. (2021). Investigating autonomous vehicle impacts on individual activity-travel behavior. Trans-portation Research Part A, 148, 402-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2021.04.006
  10. Duarte, F. & Ratti, C. (2018). The impact of autonomous vehicles on cities: A review. Journal of Urban Technology, 25, 3-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2018.1493883
  11. Freund, P. and Martin, G. (1993). The Ecology of the Automobile. Montreal: Black Rose Books.Gardner, B. & Rebar, A. (2019). Habit formation and behavior change. Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Psychology. http://www.oxfordre.com/psychology
  12. Guan, J., Zhang, S., D’Ambrosio, L.A., Zhang, K. & Coughlin, J.F. (2021). Potential impacts of autonomous vehicles on urban sprawl: A comparison of Chinese and US car-oriented adults. Sustainability, 13, 7632. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147632
  13. Gutieerrez, C.I. (2021). A new wave of urban sprawl: Influence of autonomous vehicles on the policy toolkit and property tax revenues of local governments. Journal of Urban Technology, 28, 155-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2021.1959784
  14. Heinrichs, D. (2016). Autonomous driving and urban land use. In: Maurer, M., Gerdes, J.C., Lenz, B. & Winner, H. (eds). Autonomous Driving: Technical, Legal and Social Aspects, Springer Open, 213-231. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48847-8_11
  15. IEA (International Energy Agency), (2023). Demand for electric cars is booming, with sales expected to leap 35% this year after a record-breaking 2022. https://www.iea.org/news/demand-for-electric-cars-is-booming-with-sales-expected-to-leap-35-this-year-after-a-record-breaking-2022
  16. ITU (International Telecommunication Union). (2022). Key ICT indicators for developed and developing countries, the world and special regions (totals and penetration rates). Statistics. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx
  17. Judah, G., B. Gardner & Aubger, R. (2013). Forming a flossing habit: An exploratory study of the psychological determinants of habit formation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 338-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02086.x
  18. Kellerman, A. (1993). Telecommunications and Geography. Belhaven Pinter (John Wiley).
  19. Kellerman, A. (1994). Commuting as Experience and its Ramifications for Telecommuting. Netcom, 8, 225-234. https://doi.org/10.3406/netco.1994.1219
  20. Kellerman, A. (2006). Personal Mobilities. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203087169
  21. Kellerman, A. (2014). The Internet as Second Action Space. London and New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315765105
  22. Kellerman, A. (2018). Automated and Autonomous Spatial Mobilities. Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781786438492
  23. Kellerman, A. (2019). The Internet City: People, Companies, Systems and Vehicles. Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788973595
  24. Kellerman, A. (2020). Globalization and Spatial Mobilities: Commodities and People, Capital, Information and Technology. Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781789901221
  25. Kellerman, A. (2022). Post-Coronavirus personal spatial mobilities: A speculative view. Journal of Urban Technology, 29, 145-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2022.2044743
  26. Kellerman, A. (2023a). Homo Viator 2020s: Electrified and Internet-based personal mobilities. GeoJournal, 88, 2553-2562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-022-10764-8
  27. Kellerman, A. (2023b). Chatbots and information mobility: An agenda for thought and study. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 50, 2023 https://doi.org/10.1177/23998083231181595
  28. Kellerman, A. (2023c). The electrification of road transport and its urban effects. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science 49, 2022:1593-1596. https://doi.org/10.1177/23998083221088291
  29. Kellerman, A. (2023d). Understanding Personal Mobilities. Cheltenham UK and Northampton MA, US: Edward Elgar (forthcoming).
  30. Lathem, A. & Natrtrass, M. (2019). Autonomous vehicles, car-dominated environments, and cycling: Using an ethnography of infrastructure to reflect on the prospects of a new transportation technology. Journal of Transport Geography, 81. 102539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo/2019.102539
  31. Lee, S., Jang, K.M., Kang, N., Kim, J., Oh, M. & Kim, Y. (2022). Redesigning urban elements and structures considering autonomous vehicles: Pre-paring design strategies for wide implementation in cities. Transportation Research Part A, 148, 402-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2022.103595
  32. Liu, P., Xu, S-X, G.P. Ong, Tian, Q. & Ma, S. (2021). Effect of autonomous vehicles on travel and urban characteristics. Transportation Research Part B, 153, 128-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2021.08.014
  33. Mandelaro, J. (2023). How will AI chatbots like ChatGPT affect higher education? News Center, University of Rochester. https://www.rochester.edu/newscenter/chatgpt-artificial-intelligence-ai-chatbots-education-551522/
  34. Marien, H., Custers, R. & Aarts, H. (2019). Studying human habits in societal context: Examining support for a basic stimulus-response mecha-nism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 614-618. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419868211
  35. Maurer, M., Gerdes, J.C., Lenz, B. & Winner, H. (eds). (2016). Autonomous Driving: Technical, Legal and Social Aspects. Springer Open. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48847-8
  36. Milakis, D. & Müller, S. (2021). The societal dimension of the automated vehicles transition: Towards a research agenda. Cities, 113, 103144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103144
  37. Mitchell, W.J., Borroni-Bird, C.E., & Burns, L.D. (2010). Reinventing the Automobile: Personal Urban Mobility for the 21st Century. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/8490.001.0001
  38. Mitteregger, M., Bruck, E.N., Soteropoulos, A., Stickler, A., Berger, M., Dangschat, J.S., Scheuvens, R. and Banerjee, I. (2022). AVENUE21. Con-nected and Automated Driving: Prospects for Urban Europe. Springer Nature. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-64140-8
  39. Mitteregger, M., Bruck, E.N., Soteropoulos, A., Stickler, A., Berger, M., Dangschat, J.S., Scheuvens, R. and Banerjee, I. (2023). AVENUE21: Plan-ning and Policy Considerations for an Age of Automated Mobility. Springer Nature. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-64140-8
  40. Nadafianshahamabadi, R., Tayarani, M., & Rowangould, G. (2021). A closer look at urban development under the emergence of autonomous vehicles: Traffic. Land use and air quality impacts. Journal of Transport Geography 94, 103113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103113
  41. Nikitas, A., Vitel, A-E., & C. Cotet, C. (2021). Autonomous vehicles and employment: An urban futures revolution or catastrophe? Cities, 114, 103203 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103203
  42. Potor, M. (2022). How chatbots are driving changes in urban mobility. Chatlayer. https://chatlayer.ai/how-chatbots-are-driving-changes-in-urban-mobility/.
  43. Rafael, S., Correia, L.P.,Lopes, D., Bandeira, J., Coelho, M.C., Andrade, M., Borrego, C. & Miranda, A.L. (2020). Autonomous vehicles opportuni-ties for cities air quality. Science of the Total Environment, 712, 136546. https://doi.org/10/1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136546.
  44. Taalbi, J. & Nielsen, H. (2021). The role of energy infrastructure in shaping early adoption of electric and gasoline cars. Nature Energy, 6, 970-976. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-021-00898-3
  45. Thrift, N. (1995). A hyperactive world. In: Johnston, R.J., Taylor, P.J., & Watts, M.J. (eds). Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World in the Late Twentieth Century. Blackwell, 18-35.
  46. Thrift, N. (2004). Driving in the City. Theory, Culture and Society, 21, 41-59. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276404046060
  47. Urry, J. (2004). The 'system' of automobility, Theory, Culture and Society, 21, 25-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276404046059
  48. Van de Poel, I. (2021). Design for value change. Ethics and Information Technology, 23, 27-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-018-9461-9